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Die kleine Conni lüftet das Geheimnis um den Kater Mau. Dabei erlebt sie einige Abenteuer. Dönitz intended to strike close to shore in American and Canadian waters and prevent the convoys—the most effective anti—U-boat system—from ever forming.
Dönitz was determined to take advantage of Canadian and American unpreparedness before the situation changed. The problem inhibiting Dönitz's plan was a lack of boats.
On paper he had , but in January , 99 were still undergoing sea trials and 59 were assigned to training flotillas, leaving only on war operations.
Therefore, on 1 January Dönitz had a fighting strength of 16—25 in the Atlantic six near to Iceland on "Norwegian operations" , three in the Arctic Ocean , three in the Mediterranean and three operating west of Gibraltar.
Unknown to him, ULTRA had read his Enigma signals and knew the position, size, and intentions of his boats, down to the date the operation was scheduled to begin.
The attacks, when they came, were not a surprise. Lawrence , a series of battles which lasted into The global average was The solitary kill was achieved by the RCAF.
Canadian operations, as with American efforts, were a failure during this year. Along with conventional U-boat operations Dönitz authorised clandestine activities in Canadian waters, including spying, mine-laying, and recovery of German prisoners of war as Dönitz wished to extract information from rescued submariners concerning Allied tactics.
All of these things tied down Canadian military power and imposed industrial, fiscal, and psychological costs.
The impunity with which U-boats carried out these operations in Canadian waters into provided a propaganda effect.
Even with operational problems great success was achieved in American waters. From January to July , Dönitz's submarines were able to attack un-escorted ships off the United States' east coast and in the Caribbean Sea; U-boats sank more ships and tonnage than at any other time in the war.
After a convoy system was introduced to protect the shipping, Dönitz shifted his U-boats back to the North Atlantic. By the time improved American air and naval defences had driven German submarines from American shores, 5, Allied sailors had been killed for negligible losses in U-Boats.
The ensuing Battle of the Caribbean resulted in immediate dividends for U-boats. In a short time, at least transports had been destroyed or sunk.
The sinkings damaged inter-island trade substantially. Oil refinery production in region declined  while the tanker fleet suffered losses of up to ten percent within twenty-four hours.
The USN introduced effective convoy systems thereafter, ending the "carnage. Dönitz maintained his demands for the concentration of all his crews in the Atlantic.
As the military situation in North Africa and on the Eastern Front began to deteriorate Hitler diverted a number of submarines to the Battle of the Mediterranean  upon the suggestions of Admiral Eberhard Weichold.
Hitler felt compelled to act against Allied sea forces which were having an enormous impact on Axis supply lines to North Africa.
The decision defied logic, for a victory in the Atlantic would end the war in the Mediterranean.
Dönitz had met his end as a submarine commander in the Mediterranean two decades earlier. In Dönitz summed up his philosophy in one simple paragraph; "The enemy's shipping constitutes one single, great entity.
It is therefore immaterial where a ship is sunk. Once it has been destroyed it has to be replaced by a new ship; and that's that.
BdU intelligence concluded the Americans could produce 15,, tons of shipping in and —two million tons under actual production figures.
Dönitz always calculated the worst case scenario using the highest figures of enemy production potential. Some , tons per month needed to be sunk to win the war.
The "second happy time" reached a peak in June , with , tons sunk, up from , in May, , in April and the highest since the , tons sunk in March Nevertheless, there was still cause for optimism.
B-Dienst had cracked the convoy ciphers and by July he could call upon boats, operational, to conduct a renewed assault. By October he had operational from Dönitz's force finally reached the desired number both he and Raeder had hoped for in The addition of a fourth rotor to the Enigma left radio detection the only way to gather intelligence on dispositions and intentions of the German naval forces.
German code breakers had their own success in the capture of the code book to Cipher Code Number 3 from a merchant ship.
It was as treble success for the BdU. Dönitz was content that he now had the naval power to extend U-boat operations to other areas aside the North Atlantic.
The Caribbean, Brazilian waters with the coast of West Africa designated operational theatres. Waters in the southern hemisphere to South Africa could also be attacked with the new Type IX submarine.
The strategy was sound and his tactical ideas were effective. The number of boats available allowed him to form Wolfpacks to comb convoy routes from east to west attacking one when found and pursuing it across the ocean.
The pack then refuelled from a U-boat tanker and worked from west to east. Raeder and the operations staff disputed the value in attacking convoys heading westward with empty cargo holds.
The tactics were successful but placed great strain on crews who spent up to eight days in constant action.
November was a new high in the Atlantic. The same month Dönitz suffered strategic defeat. His submarines failed to prevent Operation Torch , even with of them operating in the Atlantic.
Dönitz considered it a major self-inflicted defeat. Allied morale radically improved after the victories of Torch, Second Battle of El Alamein and Battle of Stalingrad ; all occurred within days of one another.
The U-boat war was the only military success the Germans enjoyed at the end of the year. In a communique to the navy he announced his intentions to retain practical control of the U-boats and his desire to fight to the end for Hitler.
Dönitz's promotion earned Hitler his undying loyalty. For Dönitz, Hitler had given him a "true home-coming at last, to a country in which unemployment appeared to have been abolished, the class war no longer tore the nation apart, and the shame of defeat in was being expunged.
Hitler recognised his patriotism, professionalism but above all, his loyalty. Dönitz remained so, long after the war was lost.
In so doing, he wilfully ignored the genocidal nature of the regime and claimed ignorance of the Holocaust.
In the last quarter of , 69 submarines had been commissioned taking the total number to , with operational. Dönitz's proposed expansion ran into difficulties experienced by all of his predecessors; the lack of steel.
The navy had no representation in or to Albert Speer 's armament ministry for naval production was the only sphere not under his control.
Dönitz understood this worked against the navy because it lacked the elasticity to cope with breakdowns of production at any point, whereas the other services could make good production by compensating one sector at the expense of another.
Without any representatives the battle of priorities was left to Speer and Göring. Dönitz had the sense to place U-boat production under Speer on the proviso 40 per month were completed.
New construction procedures, dispensing with prototypes and the abandonment of modifications reduced construction times from ,man hours to —, to meet Speer's quota.
In the spring , the Type XXI submarine was scheduled to reach frontline units. In however, the Combined Bomber Offensive complicated the planned production.
Dönitz and Speer were appalled by the destruction of Hamburg , a major construction site. The type VII remained the backbone of the fleet in At the end of , Dönitz was faced with the appearance of escort carriers , and long-range aircraft working with convoy escorts.
The Command was moderately successful after mid The loss of , tons of fuel in one convoy represented the most devastating loss percentage of the war—only two of nine tankers reached port.
The British 8th Army were forced to ration their fuel for a time, earning Dönitz the gratitude of the Afrika Korps. It was agreed that until the defeat of Dönitz and his men, there could be no amphibious landings in continental Europe.
During January and February information was decrypted within 24 hours proving operationally useful, although this slipped at the end of the second month contributing to German interceptions.
In February the strength of Allied defences were an ominous sign for Dönitz. The battle of HX was ended upon the intervention of air power from Iceland.
Dönitz sent 20 boats to attack SC and both sides suffered heavy losses—11 merchants for three U-boats plus four damaged.
It was "what both sides considered one of the hardest fought battles of the Atlantic war. The majority of the ships sunk were by one crew, commanded by Siegfried von Forstner —he sank seven.
The Admiralty later issued a report on the matter; "The Germans never came so near [to] disrupting communications between the new world and the old as in the first twenty days of March New Allied techniques, tactics and technology began to turn the tide.
By April U-boat morale was reaching a crisis point. Ominous for BdU was the sudden growth of Allied air power. The Allied command accepted that air cover over the mid-Atlantic was totally inadequate and had drawn attention to the fact that not one VLR Very Long Range aircraft was to be found at any Allied air base west of Iceland.
The Americans released Liberators for the North Atlantic. At the end of March 20 VLR aircraft were operational rising to 41 by mid-April, all of them flown by British crews.
Dönitz detected a drop in morale among his captains, as did the British. Dönitz encouraged his commanders to show a "hunter's instinct" and "warrior spirit" in the face of the air—surface support group threat.
Along with air power, the BdU was forced to contend with a large increase in available Allied convoy escorts which replenished their tanks from tankers in the convoys allowing escort across the ocean.
The official naval historian wrote, "The collapse of the enemy's offensive, when it came, was so sudden that it took him completely by surprise.
We now know that, in fact, a downward trend in the U-boats' recent accomplishments could have forewarned him, but was concealed from him by the exaggerated claims made by their commanders.
Encouraged by the isolated successes of anti-aircraft artillery installed on submarines, he ordered crews to stay on the surface and fight it out with the aircraft.
For the month of April Allied losses fell to 56 ships of , tons. Throughout the battles only two ships were sunk in convoy in the Atlantic while an air anti-submarine escort was present.
Allied air power determined where and when U-boats could move freely surfaced. It was the combination of convoy escorts and air power that made the Atlantic unsuitable for pack operations.
They forced a commander to dive to prevent the vehicle marking his position or attacking directly. Six of the ships were sunk; three were stragglers.
By 24 May, when Dönitz conceded defeat and withdrew the surviving crews from the field of battle, they had already lost 33 U-boats.
At the end of May it had risen to Consequently, the Allied success is described as decisive in winning the Battle of the Atlantic.
Defeat in the mid-Atlantic left Dönitz in a dilemma. The U-boats had proven unable to elude convoy escorts and attack convoys with success.
He was concerned about crew morale suffering from idleness and a loss of experience with the latest Allied developments in anti-submarine warfare.
Aside from problems of seaworthiness among machines and crew, there were not enough Submarine pens to store idle boats and they were a target for aircraft in port.
Dönitz would not withdraw his submarines from combat operations, for he felt the ships, men and aircraft engaged in suppressing the U-boats could then be turned on Germany directly.
The U-boat war was to continue. From mid-June the technological and industrial superiority of the Allied navies allowed the Americans, Canadians, and British to form hunter-killer groups consisting of fast anti-submarine escorts and aircraft carriers.
The purpose of naval operations changed from avoiding U-boats and safeguarding convoys to seeking them out and destroying them where ever they operated.
Argentia had been an important base for the naval taskforces until superseded by the Royal Canadian Navy in early Dönitz reacted by deploying his U-boats near the Azores where land-based aircraft still had difficulty reaching them.
In this region he hoped to threaten the Gibraltar—Britain convoy route. Dönitz intended to concentrate his power in a rough arc from West Africa to South America and the Caribbean.
In this, he failed to "stem the tide of U-boat losses. Dönitz's crews faced danger from the outset. The transit routes through the Bay of Biscay were heavily patrolled by aircraft.
The decision was to cost BdU heavy casualties. A group of U-boats were more likely to attract a radar contact, and Allied pilots soon learned to swarm their targets.
After 4 August , the number of destroyed U-boats fell from one every four days, to one every 27 until June US hunter—killer groups extended their patrols to the central Atlantic in the summer.
They sank 15 U-boats from June through to August A number of supply submarines were destroyed crippling the Germans ability to conduct long range operations.
At the end of the summer, practically all supply U-boats had been destroyed. U-boats were equipped with the G7es torpedo , an acoustic torpedo, which the grand admiral hoped would wrest the technological initiative back.
The torpedo was the centre piece to Dönitz's plan. Great faith was also placed in the installation of Wanze radar to detect aircraft.
It was intended as a successor to the Metox radar detector. A number of his boats were later retrofitted with the submarine snorkel , permitting the submarine to stay submerged.
He accepted that the older submarines were obsolete now that Allied defences in the air were complete. He required a "true submarine", equipped with snorkel to allow his crews to stay submerged, at least to snorkel-depth, and evade radar-equipped aircraft.
Dönitz was pleased with the promised top speed of 18 knots. The battle was a failure. The hunter-killer groups were called in to hunt the remaining members of the wolfpacks, with predictable results.
In mid-December , Dönitz finally conceded not only the Atlantic, but the Gibraltar routes as well. The hunter-killer and convoy escorts brought the wolfpack era to an end at the close of In November he sent the last U-boat into the Gulf of Mexico just after the blackout restrictions were lifted.
U achieved one final success. That left only the Arctic convoys to the Soviet Union. New radars were on the horizon and a direction finding antenna for Naxos was scheduled for use.
Dönitz established a naval operations scientific staff to focus on more powerful centimetric radars. Production of submarines was streamlined.
Parts for eight major sections were fabricated across 60 plants in Europe an assembled at Hamburg, Danzig and Bremen to ease the pressure of bombing and congestion at shipyards.
The first of the new generation boats were expected by April Dönitz hoped for 33 per month by September. Single boats were still sent to the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean.
With 66 vessels at sea at any one time, and with boats operational, the BdU was still a viable threat and he believed the force could achieve modest success.
Crossing the Atlantic took up to a month compared to a week in Positioning west of Ireland could take several weeks submerged.
In return 29 crews were lost. A major concern to Dönitz was Operation Overlord , the long predicted landing in France, and what role the U-boat arm and surface forces could play in the defence.
He was sensitive to a landing on the Bay of Biscay but retained boats there only for operational readiness.
Dönitz ended reconnaissance operations in the region. In the BdU war diary he wrote of ending operations since "otherwise the strong enemy air activity will lead to high losses which would only be acceptable if an immediate landing on the Biscay coast were expected.
As this is no longer considered an acute danger the boats will remain at readiness in the concrete shelters. When the D-day landings took place on 6 June , the U-boats were ordered into action with the awareness that the western flank of the invasion would be well protected at sea.
The narrow, shallow, waters of the English Channel provided few opportunities for charging the batteries. Dönitz feared the task was impossible.
The seven non-snorkel boats were ordered to attack on the surface. In exchange for 10 U-boats with the survivors damaged, two frigates , four freighters, and one tank landing ship were sunk.
Dönitz and the high command had been ignorant of the true scale of the naval D-day effort. Dönitz's claims underplayed German losses, which were, in fact, 41 submarines from 82 in France, a 50 percent loss rate.
The collapse of the German front in Normandy left only the bases in German-occupied Norway nearest to the Atlantic.
The newer boats were not forthcoming either. A large number had snorkels, which enabled them to surface only upon reaching port.
Submerged, this meant no radio or Enigma communications and far fewer sightings for the Allied intelligence network to exploit.
Dönitz ordered his submarines to British coastal waters with some success in November and December , achieving 85, tons. The new types could conceivably have capitalised on these developments but the war was nearly over.
On 1 January , Dönitz had submarines; operational. On 1 April , it was from Dönitz supported the use of Human torpedoes ; the Neger , Marder , Seehund and Biber were all used in suicide missions on his orders, perhaps inspired by the Japanese Kamikaze.
On 30 April Adolf Hitler committed suicide. Dönitz succeeded him as head of state and Führer. Dönitz issued an order to all U-boats to cease combat operations and return to port or surrender to Allied naval vessels.
The order was obeyed with a handful of notable exceptions—the Actions of 5—6 May , and Actions of 7—8 May occurred after the surrender.
Dönitz admired Hitler and was vocal about the qualities he perceived in Hitler's leadership. In August he praised his foresightedness and confidence; "anyone who thinks he can do better than the Führer is stupid.
A grateful Hitler appointed the navy's commander as his successor when he chose to die. Dönitz's influence on military matters was also evident.
Hitler acted on Dönitz's advice in September to block the Gulf of Finland after Finland abandoned the Axis powers.
Operation Tanne Ost was a poorly executed disaster. It reinforced isolated coastal garrisons along the Baltic and enacted the arduous task of evacuating thousands of soldiers and civilians to safety in order that they might continue the struggle into the spring, In the final days of the war , after Hitler had taken refuge in the Führerbunker beneath the Reich Chancellery garden in Berlin, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring was considered the obvious successor to Hitler, followed by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler.
Göring, however, infuriated Hitler by radioing him in Berlin asking for permission to assume leadership of the Reich. Himmler also tried to seize power by entering into negotiations with Count Bernadotte.
On 28 April , the BBC reported Himmler had offered surrender to the western Allies and that the offer had been declined.
From mid-April , Dönitz and elements of what remained of the Reich government moved into the buildings of the Stadtheide Barracks in Plön.
Furthermore, Hitler declared both Göring and Himmler traitors and expelled them from the party. He killed himself on 30 April.
On 1 May, the day after Hitler's own suicide, Goebbels committed suicide. On 2 May, the new government of the Reich fled to Flensburg - Mürwik where he remained until his arrest on 23 May That night, 2 May, Dönitz made a nationwide radio address in which he announced Hitler's death and said the war would continue in the East "to save Germany from destruction by the advancing Bolshevik enemy.
Dönitz knew that Germany's position was untenable and the Wehrmacht was no longer capable of offering meaningful resistance.
During his brief period in office, he devoted most of his effort to ensuring the loyalty of the German armed forces and trying to ensure German personnel would surrender to the British or Americans and not the Soviets.
He feared vengeful Soviet reprisals, and hoped to strike a deal with the Western Allies. In the end, Dönitz's tactics were moderately successful, enabling about 1.
Through and the Dönitz-initiated Operation Hannibal , which had the distinction of being the largest naval evacuation in history. From 3 to 9 May , 81, of the , persons waiting on the Hel Peninsula were evacuated without loss.
Eisenhower 's headquarters in Rheims , France, to negotiate a surrender to the Allies. Dönitz had instructed them to draw out the negotiations for as long as possible so that German troops and refugees could surrender to the Western powers, but when Eisenhower let it be known he would not tolerate their stalling, Dönitz authorised Jodl to sign the instrument of unconditional surrender at on the morning of 7 May.
Just over an hour later, Jodl signed the documents. The surrender documents included the phrase, "All forces under German control to cease active operations at hours Central European Time on 8 May Dönitz was a dedicated Nazi and a passionate supporter of Hitler,  something he tried to obscure after the war.
Anyone who believes he can do better than the Führer is stupid. Dönitz contributed to the spread of Nazism within the Kriegsmarine. He insisted that officers share his political views and, as head of the Kriegsmarine , formally joined the Nazi Party on 1 February , as member 9,, Dönitz's influence over naval officers contributed to none joining the attempts to kill Hitler.
From an ideological standpoint, Dönitz was anti-Marxist and antisemitic  who believed that Germany needed to fight the "poison of Jewry".
His fellow officers noted he was under Hitler's influence, and closely wedded to Nazi ideology.
Divided along party lines, beset with the spreading poison of Jewry and vulnerable to it, because we lacked the defense of our present uncompromising ideology, we would have long since succumbed under the burden of this war and delivered ourselves to the enemy who would have mercilessly destroyed us.
At the Nuremberg trials , Dönitz claimed the statement about the "poison of Jewry" was regarding "the endurance, the power to endure, of the people, as it was composed, could be better preserved than if there were Jewish elements in the nation.
Hitler said each man should take care of his business and mine was U-boats and the Navy. He was present at the October Posen Conference where Himmler described the mass murder of Jews with the intent of making the audience complicit in this crime.
Even during his imprisonment, after Nuremberg, with the crimes of the Nazi state well-known, Dönitz remained an antisemite.
In April , he told Speer that if it was the choice of the Americans and not the Jews, he would have been released. Following the war, Dönitz was held as a prisoner of war by the Allies.
He was indicted as a major war criminal at the Nuremberg Trials on three counts. One: conspiracy to commit crimes against peace , war crimes , and crimes against humanity.
Two: planning, initiating, and waging wars of aggression. Three: crimes against the laws of war. Dönitz was found not guilty on count one of the indictment, but guilty on counts two and three.
During the trial, army psychologist Gustave Gilbert was allowed to examine Nazi leaders on trial for war crimes. Dönitz and Hermann Göring scored , which made them equally the third-highest among the Nazi leaders tested.
At the trial, Dönitz was charged with waging unrestricted submarine warfare against neutral shipping, permitting Hitler's Commando Order of 18 October to remain in full force when he became commander-in-chief of the Navy, and to that extent responsibility for that crime.
His defence was that the order excluded men captured in naval warfare, and that the order had not been acted upon by any men under his command.
Added to that was his knowledge of 12, involuntary foreign workers working in the shipyards, and doing nothing to stop it. Hitler's motives were twofold.
The first was that reprisals could be taken against Western Allied prisoners of war; second, it would deter German forces from surrendering to the Western Allies, as was happening on the Eastern Front where the convention was in abeyance.
Instead of arguing the conventions should never be denounced, Dönitz suggested it was not expedient to do so, so the court found against him on this issue; but as the convention was not denounced by Germany, and British prisoners in camps under Dönitz's jurisdiction were treated strictly according to the Convention, the Court considered these mitigating circumstances.
Among the war-crimes charges, Dönitz was accused of waging unrestricted submarine warfare for issuing War Order No. By issuing these two orders, he was found guilty of causing Germany to be in breach of the Second London Naval Treaty of However, as evidence of similar conduct by the Allies was presented at his trial, his sentence was not assessed on the grounds of this breach of international law.
On the specific war crimes charge of ordering unrestricted submarine warfare, Dönitz was found "[not] guilty for his conduct of submarine warfare against British armed merchant ships", because they were often armed and equipped with radios which they used to notify the admiralty of attack.
As stated by the judges: "Dönitz is charged with waging unrestricted submarine warfare contrary to the Naval Protocol of to which Germany acceded, and which reaffirmed the rules of submarine warfare laid down in the London Naval Agreement of The order of Dönitz to sink neutral ships without warning when found within these zones was, therefore, in the opinion of the Tribunal, violation of the Protocol The orders, then, prove Dönitz is guilty of a violation of the Protocol The sentence of Dönitz is not assessed on the ground of his breaches of the international law of submarine warfare.
His sentence on unrestricted submarine warfare was not assessed, because of similar actions by the Allies. In particular, the British Admiralty , on 8 May , had ordered all vessels in the Skagerrak sunk on sight, and Admiral Chester Nimitz , wartime commander-in-chief of the US Pacific Fleet , stated the US Navy had waged unrestricted submarine warfare in the Pacific from the day the US officially entered the war.
Thus, Dönitz was not charged of waging unrestricted submarine warfare against unarmed neutral shipping by ordering all ships in designated areas in international waters to be sunk without warning.
Dönitz was imprisoned for 10 years in Spandau Prison in what was then West Berlin. He also rejected Speer's attempts to persuade him to end his devotion to Hitler and accept responsibility for the wrongs the German Government had committed.
Over senior Allied officers also sent letters to Dönitz conveying their disappointment over the fairness and verdict of his trial.
Dönitz was released on 1 October and retired to the small village of Aumühle in Schleswig-Holstein in northern West Germany.
There, he worked on two books. This book recounted Dönitz's experiences as U-boat commander 10 years and President of Germany 20 days.
In it, Dönitz explains the Nazi regime as a product of its time, but argues he was not a politician and thus not morally responsible for many of the regime's crimes.
He likewise criticizes dictatorship as a fundamentally flawed form of government and blames it for many of the Nazi era's failings.
Dönitz's second book, Mein wechselvolles Leben My Ever-Changing Life is less known, perhaps because it deals with the events of his life before This book was first published in , and a new edition was released in with the revised title Mein soldatisches Leben My Martial Life.
In , he appeared in the Thames Television production The World at War , in one of his few television appearances.
Dönitz was unrepentant regarding his role in World War II, saying that he had acted at all times out of duty to his nation.
He was buried in Waldfriedhof Cemetery in Aumühle without military honours, and service members were not allowed to wear uniforms to the funeral.
Also in attendance were over holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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